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新视野大学英语 读写教程第三册 unit8-b

2011-07-29    来源:网络    【重庆时时彩五星定胆      普特网校:美国外教1对1

文章摘要:新视野大学英语 读写教程第三册 unit8,精神恍忽笑网最卑鄙,黄淑惠矫枉过中大厨师。

新概念| 重新定义经典英语教材

Who Will Take Advantage of Human Cloning?

Last week's news that scientists had cloned a sheep sent academics and the public into a panic at theprospect that humans might be next. That's an understandable reaction. Cloning is a radical challengeto the most fundamental laws of biology, so it's reasonable to be concerned that it might be a preface toactivities that will threaten human society and dignity. Yet much of the moral opposition seems also togrow out of an automatic, unthinking disgust. This refusal to consider the issue logically makes it hardfor even trained scientists and other experts to see the matter clearly. While human cloning might notoffer great benefits to humanity, no one has yet made a convincing case that it would do any real harm,either.

Conservative spiritual leaders have claimed that cloning a human constitutes a gross attack onhuman dignity. That would surely be true if a cloned individual were treated as a lesser being, withfewer rights or lower status. But why suppose that the laws that protect our rights and dignity wouldnot be applicable to cloned persons? A leading lawyer has suggested that cloning would violate the"right to a unique genetic identity". Where did he come up with such a right? It makes perfect sense tosay that adult persons have a right not to be cloned without their voluntary, informed consent. But ifsuch consent were given, whose "right" to genetic identity would be violated?

Many of the vivid warnings of science-fiction concerning the prospect of human cloning turn out,upon reflection, to be wildly improbable. There's the fear, for instance, that parents might clone a childfor the sake of having "surplus parts" in case the original child needs an organ transplant. But parentsof identical twins don't view one child as an organ farm for the other. Why should cloned children'sparents be any different?

Another disturbing thought is that cloning will lead to efforts to breed individuals with geneticqualities perceived as desirable (math geniuses, soccer players, etc.). Such ideas are offensive, not onlybecause of an unthinking disgust, but also because of the horrors carried out by the Nazis in the nameof improving their race. But there's a vast difference between the breeding programs as practiced bysome groups (where the urge to breed certain types of people leads to efforts to destroy other types)and the much more harmless forms already practiced in democratic societies (where, say, lawyersfreely choose to have sexual relations with other lawyers). Banks stocked with the frozen sperm ofgeniuses already exist, but they haven't created a master race because few women are queuing up toget pregnant this way. Why should we think it would be different if human cloning becomes available?

So who will likely take advantage of cloning? Perhaps a couple whose child is dying. This might seempsychologically suspect. But a cloned child born to such suspect parents stands no greater or lesserchance of being loved, or rejected, than a child created the normal way. Infertile couples are also likelyto seek out cloning. That such couples have other options (artificially bringing egg and sperm together,or adopting a child) is not an argument for denying them the right to clone. Or consider an exampleraised by Judge Richard Posner: a couple in which the husband has some unfortunate genetic defect.

Currently, if this couple wants a genetically related child, they have four not altogether pleasantoptions. They can reproduce naturally and resign themselves to the risk of passing on the disease to thechild. They can go to a sperm bank and take a chance on unknown genes. They can bring egg andsperm together artificially and dispose of any affected baby before placing it in the mother, or beforebirth — though that might be objectionable, too. Or they can get a male relative of the father to be asperm donor, if such a relative exists. This is one case where even people bothered by creating a childunder the lens of a microscope might see cloning as not the worst option.

Even if human cloning offers no obvious benefits to mankind, why ban it? In a democracy we don'tusually pass laws against something before there is actual or probable evidence of harm. Before we goany further, it might make sense to require a temporary pause on research into human cloning in orderto make a systematic enquiry into the grave questions it raises. When research into cloning is resumed,human cloning should remain a research activity for an extended period. And if it is ever attempted, itshould — and no doubt will — take place only under careful examination and layers of legaladministration. Most important, human cloning should be governed by the same laws that now protecthuman rights. A world not safe for cloned humans would be a world not safe for the rest of us.

New Words

panic n. 恐慌,惊慌 v. (使)惊慌

preface n. 1.开端,前奏,序幕 2.序言,前言,引言

refusal n. 拒绝

conservative a. 保守的,守旧的,传统的 n. 保守的人,保守派

spiritual a. 1.宗教上的 2.心灵的,精神上的

constitute vt. 1.是,构成 2.组成,构成

gross a. 1.明显错误的 2.总的,总共的

applicable a. 适用的,合适的,适当的

voluntary a. 自愿的,志愿的

consent n. 同意,准许 vi. 同意,准许

vivid a. 鲜艳的,鲜明的,生动的,逼真的

reflection n. 1.考虑,深思 2.反射,反照;倒影 3.反映,表达

probable a. 很有可能的,大概的

improbable a. 不大可能的,未必确实的

sake n. 缘由,理由

surplus a. 过剩的,多余的 n. 过剩;剩余额

soccer n. 英式足球

horror n. 1.令人恐惧的事物,恐怖 2.恐惧,震惊

democratic a. 民主的,有民主精神的

sexual a. 性的,两性的

sperm n. 精子

queue vi. 排队 n. (排队等候的)一队人或车等

infertile a. 不育的;不结果实的

artificial a. 1.人造的,人工的 2.假的,矫揉造作的

defect n. 缺陷,缺点

reproduce v. 1.(指人类、动物等)繁殖,生殖 2.复制,再现

resign v. 1.顺从,听从 2.辞职,引退

dispose v. 1.摆脱,处理,扔掉 2.安排,布置

lens n. 透镜,(凹、凸)镜片

microscope n. 显微镜

democracy n. 1.民主国家 2.民主;民主政体

temporary a. 短暂的,暂时的,临时的

systematic a. 有系统的,有计划的,有方法的

resume v. 再继续,恢复

layer n. 层

administration n. 1.管理,经营,支配 2.行政部门,行政机关 3.政府

govern v. 1.影响,支配,规定 2.统治,治理,管理

Phrases and Expressions

send into 使处于(某种状态),使变得

at the prospect of/that… 当意识到……可能时

grow out of 由... ...而生,起因于

make sense 有道理,合乎情理;明智

turn out (to be) 证实是,原来是

on/upon reflection 再考虑后

for the sake of sth./doing sth. 为了得到或拥有

view as 视为,看作

perceive as 视为,当作

carry out 进行,实施

in the name of 借... ...之名;为... ...目的

queue up 排长队

stock with 使藏有,使备有

stand a chance of 有可能(取得)

seek out 寻找并发现

resign oneself to sth. 只得接受

pass on 传递,传给

take a chance on 冒险

dispose of 摆脱,处理,扔掉

make an enquiry into 调查;打听

Proper Names

Nazi (德国)国社党党员,纳粹分子

Richard Posner 理查德·波斯纳

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